The follwing publications are considered in SIGMA and cited within this documentation.


GDS. gempa module. URL:


GUI features and parameters. SeisComP extensions documentation. URL:


Hann window. Wikipedia. URL:


OpenQuake hazard library. hazardlib documentation. URL:


OpenQuake source code. GitHub. URL:


OpenQuake. Global Earthquake Model Foundation. URL:


mapmultigrid. gempa map plugin. URL:


scamp. SeisComP module. URL:


scconfig. SeisComP module. URL:


scolv. SeisComP module. URL:


scqc. SeisComP module. URL:


seedlink. Real-time waveform server. URL:


SEED Reference Manual. USGS, 2012. URL:


S. Akkar and J.J. Bommer. Empirical equations for the prediction of pga, pgv, and spectral accelerations in europe, the mediterranean region, and the middle east. Seismol. Res. Lett., 122:195–2068, 2010. URL:, doi:10.1785/gssrl.81.2.195.


S. Akkar, M.A. Sandikkaya, and J.J. Bommer. Empirical ground-motion models for point- and extended- source crustal earthquake scenarios in europe and the middle east. Bull. Earthquake Eng., 12:359 – 387, 2014. doi:.


TI Allen. Stochastic ground-motion prediction equations for southeastern australian earthquakes using updated source and attenuation parameters. Geoscience Australia Record, 69:55, 2012. URL:


Trevor I Allen. A far-field ground-motion model for the north australian craton from plate-margin earthquakes. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 112(2):1041–1059, 2022.


Gail M Atkinson. Ground-motion prediction equations for hawaii from a referenced empirical approach. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 100(2):751–761, 2010.


Gail M Atkinson. Ground-motion prediction equation for small-to-moderate events at short hypocentral distances, with application to induced-seismicity hazards. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 105(2A):981–992, 2015.


Gail M Atkinson and David M Boore. Earthquake ground-motion prediction equations for eastern north america. Bulletin of the seismological society of America, 96(6):2181–2205, 2006.


Gail M Atkinson and David M Boore. Modifications to existing ground-motion prediction equations in light of new data. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 101(3):1121–1135, 2011.


D. Bindi, M. Massa, L. Luzi, G. Ameri, F. Pacor, R. Puglia, and P. Augliera. Pan-european ground-motion prediction equations for the average horizontal component of pga, pgv, and 5 . Bull. Earthquake Eng., 12(1):, 2014. doi:10.1007/s10518-013-9525-5.


Dino Bindi, Fabrice Cotton, SR Kotha, Christian Bosse, D Stromeyer, and G Grünthal. Application-driven ground motion prediction equation for seismic hazard assessments in non-cratonic moderate-seismicity areas. Journal of Seismology, 21:1201–1218, 2017.


David M Boore and Gail M Atkinson. Ground-motion prediction equations for the average horizontal component of pga, pgv, and 5%-damped psa at spectral periods between 0.01 s and 10.0 s. Earthquake spectra, 24(1):99–138, 2008.


David M Boore, Jonathan P Stewart, Emel Seyhan, and Gail M Atkinson. Nga-west2 equations for predicting pga, pgv, and 5% damped psa for shallow crustal earthquakes. Earthquake Spectra, 30(3):1057–1085, 2014.


David M Boore, Jonathan P Stewart, Andreas A Skarlatoudis, Emel Seyhan, Basil Margaris, Nikos Theodoulidis, Emmanuel Scordilis, Ioannis Kalogeras, Nikolaos Klimis, and Nikolaos S Melis. A ground-motion prediction model for shallow crustal earthquakes in greece. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 111(2):857–874, 2021.


P. Bormann and J. Saul. A Fast, Non-saturating Magnitude Estimator for Great Earthquakes. Seismol. Res. Lett., 80(5):808 – 816, 2009. doi:10.1785/gssrl.80.5.808.


P. Bormann and K. Wylegalla. Quick estimator of the size of great earthquakes. EOS, 86(46):464, 2005.


A. Caruso, S. Colombelli, L. Elia, M. Picozzi, and A. Zollo. An on-site alert level early warning system for Italy. J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, 122:2106–2118, 2017. URL:, doi:10.1002/2016JB013403.


C. Cauzzi, E. Faccioli, M. Vanini, and A. Bianchini. Updated predictive equations for broadband (0.01–10 s) horizontal response spectra and peak ground motions, based on a global dataset of digital acceleration records. Bull. Earthquake Eng., 13:1587–1612, 2015. doi:10.1007/s10518-014-9685-y.


Vincenzo Convertito, Nils Maercklin, Nitin Sharma, and Aldo Zollo. From induced seismicity to direct time-dependent seismic hazard. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 102(6):2563–2573, 2012.


Boumédiène Derras, Pierre Yves Bard, and Fabrice Cotton. Towards fully data driven ground-motion prediction models for europe. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 12(1):495–516, 2014.


B. Dost, T. van Eck, and H. Haak. Scaling of peak ground acceleration and peak ground velocity recorded in the Netherlands. Bull. Earthquake Eng., 45:153 – 168, 2004. doi:.


B Edwards. Update of the uk stochastic ground motion model using a decade of broadband data. https://www. seced. org. uk/index. php/proceedings, 2019.


B. Gutenberg and C.F. Richter. Magnitude and Energy of Earthquakes. Annals of Geophysics, 9(1):1 – 15, 1956. URL:, doi:10.4401/ag-5590.


Özkan Kale, Sinan Akkar, Anooshiravan Ansari, and Hossein Hamzehloo. A ground-motion predictive model for iran and turkey for horizontal pga, pgv, and 5% damped response spectrum: investigation of possible regional effects. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 105(2A):963–980, 2015.


A. Katsumata. Comparison of Magnitudes Estimated by the Japan Meteorological Agency with Moment Magnitudes for Intermediate and Deep Earthquakes. Bull. Seism. Soc., 86(3):832 – 842, 1996.


Sreeram Reddy Kotha, Graeme Weatherill, Dino Bindi, and Fabrice Cotton. A regionally-adaptable ground-motion model for shallow crustal earthquakes in europe. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 18(9):4091–4125, 2020.


M. Kowsari, T. Sonnemann, B. Halldorsson, B. Hrafnkelsson, J. Snæbjornsson, and S. Jonsson. Bayesian inference of empirical ground motion models to pseudo-spectral accelerations of south iceland seismic zone earthquakes based on informative priors. Solid Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 13:, 2020. URL:, doi:10.1016/j.soildyn.2020.106075.


Giovanni Lanzano and Lucia Luzi. A ground motion model for volcanic areas in italy. Bulletin of earthquake engineering, 18(1):57–76, 2020.


Sankar Kumar Nath, Kiran Kumar Singh Thingbaijam, Soumya Kanti Maiti, and Avinash Nayak. Ground-motion predictions in shillong region, northeast india. Journal of Seismology, 16:475–488, 2012.


G.G. Pétursson and K.S. Vogfjörð. Attenuation relations for near- and far-field peak ground motion (pgv, pga) and new magnitude estimates for large earthquakes in sw-iceland. :, 2010. URL:, doi:.


STG Raghu Kanth and RN Iyengar. Estimation of seismic spectral acceleration in peninsular india. Journal of Earth System Science, 116:199–214, 2007.


C.F. Richter. An instrumental earthquake magnitude scale. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 1:1 – 32, 1935. URL:, doi:10.1785/BSSA0250010001.


Andreas Rietbrock, Fleur Strasser, and Benjamin Edwards. A stochastic earthquake ground-motion prediction model for the united kingdom. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 103(1):57–77, 2013.


Mukat Lal Sharma, John Douglas, Hilmar Bungum, and Jainish Kotadia. Ground-motion prediction equations based on data from the himalayan and zagros regions. Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 13(8):1191–1210, 2009.


S. Tsuboi, K. Abe, K. Takano, and Y. Yamanaka. Rapid determination of Mw from broadband P waveforms. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 1995. doi:10.1785/BSSA0850020606.


Giuseppina Tusa and Horst Langer. Prediction of ground motion parameters for the volcanic area of mount etna. Journal of Seismology, 20:1–42, 2016.


R.A. Uhrhammer and E.R. Collins. Synthesis of Wood-Anderson seismograms from broadband digital records. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 80(3):702–716, 1990. doi:10.1785/BSSA0800030702.


D.J. Wald, V. Quitoriano, T.H. Heaton, and H. Kanamori. Relationships between Peak Ground Acceleration, Peak Ground Velocity, and Modified Mercalli Intensity in California. Earthquake Spectra, 15(3):557–564, 1999. doi:10.1193/1.1586058.


P.M. Whitmore, S. Tsuboi, B. Hirshorn, and T.J. Sokolowski. Magnitude dependent correction for Mwp. Science of Tsunami Hazards, 20(4):, 2002.


Georgios Zalachoris and Ellen M Rathje. Ground motion model for small-to-moderate earthquakes in texas, oklahoma, and kansas. Earthquake Spectra, 35(1):1–20, 2019.


John X Zhao, Jian Zhang, Akihiro Asano, Yuki Ohno, Taishi Oouchi, Toshimasa Takahashi, Hiroshi Ogawa, Kojiro Irikura, Hong K Thio, Paul G Somerville, and others. Attenuation relations of strong ground motion in japan using site classification based on predominant period. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 96(3):898–913, 2006.